It is generally accepted that the air that we breathe mainly consists of molecules of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. But we cannot ignore the fact that it also consists of water vapor molecules! Water vapor can be found in air in much greater quantities than oxygen and nitrogen combined. How is this possible? Here's how.
The fact is that the water vapor molecules are much heavier than air molecules. In the composition of air there are all the volatile substances that are contained in plants, animals and food. The air contains all the volatile elements that in turn are contained in all the substances that make up all the objects around us. Everything that a human being consists of can be found in air: smallest particles of dust, sand, fuel combustion products, microorganisms, ammonium nitrate, carbon dioxide, methanol, ethylene, propylene, formaldehyde, ammonia, acetone, etc. In addition, air can be too cold or too hot, which usually causes a feeling of discomfort for people.
Let's talk about how to make indoor air fresh and not harmful to human health. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to use a ventilation system and special filters, which will not only purify the air from harmful impurities, but also give it a pleasant smell.
A ventilation system is a set of fans, air ducts, air distribution devices, automated control and instrumentation and other equipment, designed to introduce supply air and remove exhaust air.
First of all, the air that enters the ventilation system must be clean. Otherwise, it will not meet the standards, and this will lead to the indoor microclimate being compromised. In addition, polluted air negatively affects human health, which can lead to various respiratory diseases.
It is possible to neutralize harmful substances contained in air with the help of special filters.
Filtration is the purification of air from dust, tobacco smoke, allergens, etc. Filtration can be mechanical (fans, nets, etc.), chemical (carbon filters), and biological (bacteria and viruses).
Classification of HRV-filters
In supply ventilation systems four kinds of filters are mainly used. These are:
- ePM1 class filters retain small dust particles from 1 μm in size. These filters are highly effective and retain even bacteria and viruses, nanoparticles, soot, sea salt, oil mist, allergens, etc.;
- ePM2.5 class filters retain particles from 2.5 μm in size. These filters effectively purify the air from bacteria, fungi, mold, dust, animal hair, skin particles, etc.;
- ePM10 class filters retain particles from 10 μm in size. These filters effectively purify the air from pollen, stone dust, agricultural dust, etc.;
- Coarse filters retain particles up to 10 μm in size. They are designed for premises that do not require a high degree of air purification.
Main types of HRV-filters
Panel filters for air ventilation
Panel filters with cardboard, plastic or metal frame, are designed for use in confined and narrow spaces or where filtration of small particles is required. Their main feature is that they are shallow, take up less space in supply and exhaust installations, and have a large filtration area, which allows for large flow fluctuations in air pressure.
Pocket filters for air ventilation
Pocket filters are the most common air filters in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems for industrial and commercial use, as well as for residential use to improve indoor air quality and comfort. For supply air, these filters are used as the first and second filtration stages, as part of complex filtration solutions or as pre-filters in cleanroom procedures. These filters are also used for exhaust air or in recirculation systems to protect ventilation units. Pocket filters have a significantly higher dust retainment capacity and a longer service life than other filters.
Compact filters for air ventilation
The design of the compact filter allows you to have a large filtration area in a relatively small space. A large filtration area allows to filter air in large volumes without a significant drop in pressure. With smaller volumes of air, the pressure drop is lower than that of a conventional or pocket filter, which allows for lower energy consumption. These filters are mainly used in the food or engineering industry, where precise and sensitive machines are used. The large filtration area allows for high accuracy in the regulation of air parameters.
Carbon ventilation filters are different due to the fact that their filtering material is activated carbon, which is a natural mineral derived from peat. It has a high absorption ability, and as a result of this contains a large amount of minerals, as well as organic compounds. Activated charcoal is environmentally friendly, therefore it is safe for human and animal health. It has a high sorption capacity and does not contain harmful impurities. In addition, it is great for purifying air from dust and various allergens, as well as it also destroys pathogens.
Absolute air purification filters in ventilation systems of HEPA and ULPA types
These filters can be installed in the air ducts of residential and office premises, as well as in the ventilation systems of factories and vehicles. The principle of operation of HEPA filters is based on the ability of some materials to absorb particles from 0.1 to 0.5 μm in size, at the same time retaining large particles, the diameter of which exceeds 0.5 mm.
Proper air filtration is the key to health and comfort!